“Following the first feed production facility established in the United States of America in 1875 with the aim of producing calf feed, the concept of computer-aided feed production facility was introduced in 1975 in the most general sense in the world. This process which developed with 3rd Industrial Revolution has now reached a monitorable, reportable and sustainable structure with the 4th Industrial Revolution.”
Mahmut TATLIDİL - Yemmak Makina Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş, Business Development Assistant Director
Since the first steps taken in the United States of America in 1810 towards developing feed standards, world feed industry has developed consistently and become an important part of sustainable food production reaching 1 billion tons of annual production capacity worldwide and 400 billion dollars of market share in 2016.
China which ranks the first with 187 million tons of production capacity per year and USA which ranks the second with 170 million tons of production capacity per year are the top feed producers in the world.
In Turkey, technological compound feed production was introduced in 1950, on the contrary to the general status in the world, and the first step was taken in 1955 by the private sector. Investment process which started in 1956 with “Yem Sanayi Türk A.Ş.” with complete participation of the government accelerated with the privatization of the aforesaid investments on the whole.
Turkish feed sector having 4 facilities with 5 thousand 800 tons of total capacity per year in 1960, gained a huge investment acceleration after 1980 and reached 94 facilities with 1 million 441 thousand 590 tons of capacity per year. In 2000, it reached 6 million 662 thousand 226 tons of capacity per year with 519 established active facilities and the installed capacity of these facilities was detected to be 12 million 584 thousand tons. Reviewing the data of 2016, it is seen that these figures are around 18 million tons annually.
Looking at the statistics based on feed groups, the distribution of 1990 focused on poultry group with a rate of 35%, and cattle feed with a rate of 64%. In 2000, this distribution skipped to the poultry with a rate of 47% as it is in the world. Overall cattle and ruminant feed group have a rate of 51%.
To sum up, it is expected that the global need for animal protein will increase at a rate of 1,7%. Correspondingly, it is inevitable that growth in the sector will be at similar rates. However, especially characteristics of this growth will gain importance in Turkey.
COMPOUND FEED PRODUCTION
AND PROCESS OPTIONS
Following the first feed production facility established in the United States of America in 1875 with the aim of producing calf feed, the concept of computer-aided feed production facility was introduced in 1975 in the most general sense in the world. This process which developed with 3rd Industrial Revolution has now reached a monitorable, reportable and sustainable structure with the 4th Industrial Revolution.
Starting mainly with the acceptance of raw material, process options are divided in milling group at first.
The admixture process of premixes that is required after milling, and sensitivity and pelletizing technologies for mixing them are under the serious impact of technology today.
The main matter to be highlighted here is determining the needs of the sector bearing increasing costs and general assessment of business in mind. Software support and remote access that arose out of Industry 4.0, energy efficiency, studies on reducing the overall energy consumption of the equipment and reducing production periods and increasing capacities against the increase of additional equipment and raw material diversity can be listed as the most serious demands we face.
CATTLE FEED PRODUCTION STAGES
Although the needs of a business may vary, a facility follows the following methods in general:
a. Intake of raw material
b. Storing raw material
c. Batching raw material
d. Control and Grinding
f. Adding premix
g. Adding molasses
h. Storing semi-product
i. Pelletizing and Cooling
j. Screening Product
k. Storing Product
l. Packing and Loading
In these processes, while there is equipment which varies by raw material product diversity, land structure, height limit and production technology, remote control and monitoring systems that arose with Industry 4.0 enabling centralized control of the entire process to have a direct impact on functioning of the facility.
For example, instead of a premix unit which is canceled in the pre-investment process to reduce costs, one or two -depending on capacity- personnel who performs this work with his/her own skills and through manual methods should be employed. In addition, damages and losses arising from faulty mixes made by this worker as a result of carelessness or adding to the related batch repeatedly may reach unforeseeable extent.
Considering all these reasons, we as Yemmak, discuss all of those options while making a facility flow process and settlement plans, interpret alternatives with our 40-year experience and provide the most beneficial and technological equipment for businesses.
NEW TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS AND
1. New Technologies of Milling Section;
The diversity of raw material demanded in line with the needs of the sector has recently shown a serious increase in the growth of sector and rise of capacities. This diversity has also increased the market share of imported raw materials. At this point, incoming raw materials are sometimes in fine sized form, sometimes pelletized or in small lumps.
The most preferred method for minimizing the time of each batch in lines of the facility has been separating the dosing for fine and grain size coarse products depending on the quality of the raw material. However, this solution has been binding in the usage of silos and has not provided a serious advantage in accelerating the process.
Our pre-control screening and pre-grinding systems that we use as Yemmak enable all silos to be used as requested without separating the dosing.
Using roller mills and high-performance screeners which consume less energy instead of the mills which use bigger energy consumer motors in virtue of the need in the milling system, both time and energy are saved.
At this point, we can meet demands with our models capable of gradual milling in quality of providing the same results in grain and pelletized pulp group with a different character in roller mill technology.
Moreover, with this system, hammer mill and roller mill are deactivated if needed and production can be made in roughage without changing the screener and consuming high energy.
2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF
The main matter with the widest demand and complaining feedbacks of the sector in especially cattle feed production is powdering complaint and deterioration of the pellet form.
To give distribution here, the most important 5 factors affecting the quality of pellet are indicated with Graphic 1.
Looking at the chart, the first detail that grabs our attention is the detailed formulation, that is to say, the raw material related variables have a 40% of share in affecting the quality of pellet. However, today, the gap of this factor which is ignored in general for the sake of sustainability and reducing costs must be covered by conditioning, the efficiency of milling and suitable disc selection which are the other elements.
Sectoral solutions related to the particle size and the approaches that we have as Yemmak have been specified above. However, different solutions have recently started to stand out about conditioning.
The main aim of conditioning is to provide moisture and temperature to the raw material mixture during the pelletizing process, and it must be aimed to provide those two elements healthily. Multi-storage conditioners which were introduced to the sector in 1990 have left their places to variable-period conditioners. Variable-period conditioners are equipment which adjusts mixing process with steam according to the raw material density, can obtain a homogeneous mixture and move in differential rates provided as double shaft in general. Some other advantages can be specified as enabling adding liquids such as molasses, provine and vinasse mostly used in cattle feed and easy cleaning due to a warm environment.
Another conditioning method is double pelletizing systems that have been used in Europe since 1995 but ignored in Turkey due to high initial investment cost. As a result of this method provided with two pellet presses operating one over the other and a short conditioner, a serious increase is provided in pellet hardness with temperature. In addition, due to easy pressing, power values needed per ton reduce, and thus an increase in the capacity is observed.
3. NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF
Although the production continues partially in line with needs of the sector, products are released in pelletized form in the majority of the market. However, despite the fact that the complaints about powdering in the feeds that are offered to the consumer are prevented with pelletizing technology to some extent, the remaining part is sent to the packing line. While 65% of this mash brought to the final user consists of feeds becoming mash due to breaking during transportation as the pelletizing process is not carried out properly, the 35% of this is formed due to the fact that powders arising during the process in the facility cannot be separated well.
At this point, for powders at the rate of 35%, which can be recycled, we can separate the powder at a rate of 90% with high-performance sieves with vibro features that we offer to the sector. These sieves have proven their supremacy in terms of performance-price thanks to the ease of use and durable structure.
Furthermore, with our sieve technologies also used in cleaning raw materials, we can move up to the highest levels in the separation of contaminants such as metal, stone, stem and package wastes which are dangerous if they enter into the system.
It should be noted that safe food resources can only be guaranteed with animals fed with safe feeds.