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Canola

21 May 20217 min reading

The fact that canola oil is beneficial for heart health, can be used as a biofuel and its waste is preferred in the livestock sector proves that the production of this plant is significant in many aspects.

Hasan Kara General Manager Bovinagro

Canola belongs to the Brassica family of plants such as mustard, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, and cauliflower. Canola (Brassica napus) is a plant species obtained as a result of the breeding of rapeseed and contains erucic acid and glucosinolate, which are harmful to living things. Unlike the plant, its oil is not harmful and is used for human and animal nutrition. Canola oil has non-food uses, just like soybean oil. It can replace non-renewable petroleum-based oils in the production of products such as wax, lipstick, industrial oils, newspaper ink, biofuels, depending on its relative price in the spot markets.

Since this variety has been developed in Canada first, it was named "canola", derived from the English words "Canada and "ola" (oil low acid).

Canola (Brassica napus Canola Oleifera sp.) is an oil crop plant with two physiological periods as winter and summer. It is an important oil crop plant containing 38-50% oil and 16-24% protein.

Table 1. World Canola Meal Export Map -2019

It is grown in Canada, the United States and India, as well as in Europe and China. In America, the ratio of canola oil supply to the demand is 1/4, offering a great opportunity for US producers to grow more canola. The healthful oil derived from this crop is consumed around the world and ranks number three among edible oils by volume.

About 2 million acres of canola are grown in the United States, predominantly in North Dakota, as well as in Minnesota, Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Kentucky and many other states.

Canola is a substantial biofuel due to its rich oil content. The American Canola Council has done outstanding research on this issue, and its inclusion into diesel fuels as biodiesel has removed the legal barriers to greenhouse gas emission reduction. However, its contribution to fuel economy remained at the level of 2-8% (U.S Canola Association). Although it contributes to engine lubrication and performance, its contribution to fuel economy is low.

In the 2019-2020 season, 68 million metric tons of rapeseed were produced all over the world. In Turkey, production was recorded as 180,000 tons in 2019 and 121,000 tons in 2020. Cultivated areas increase periodically, and accordingly, a settled performance in yield cannot be observed.

As can be seen in Table 1, a high proportion of production is seen in the Western Marmara (Thrace) region. Edirne, Tekirdağ, Konya and Kırklareli pioneer in cultivated land and production.

Tekirdağ: 114,500 decares of cultivated area, 37,381 tons of production and 330 kg/decare yield; Edirne 70,000 decares of cultivated area, 24,370 tons of production and 348 kg/decare yield; Konya: 36,400 decares of cultivated area, 16,600 tons of production and 456 kg/decare yield; Kırklareli: 42,100 decares of cultivated area, 15,690 tons of production and 373 kg/decare yield. These four provinces have become the locomotive of canola production in Turkey. Despite this, Turkey's production is not sufficient according to the usage rate in the country. Its beneficial amino acids and rich protein content are effective in the preference of the meal, which is released as waste after the oil process, in livestock.

Table 2. World Canola Production

Feed factories can also use it periodically, but they cannot choose it continuously in their rations due to the insufficient supply continuity in Turkey and the problems experienced in importing. When Turkey's canola meal import figures are examined, it is seen that the product is mainly imported from Bulgaria and Ukraine. Russia has come close to these countries to a great extent. In 2020, 26,272,266 tons of concentrate feed were produced in Turkey. Annual production of canola is 121,000 tons (calculated with 45% oil rate and if other wastes are deducted, around 60,000 tons of canola meal waste is generated), 20,000 tons of canola import (10,000 tons of canola meal) and 61,000 tons of canola meal import are calculated as 141,000 tons of canola meal in total. Even if all is thought to be used in concentrate feed production, it will be seen that the usage rate in the feed industry is very low.

Table 3. Canola Production in Turkey by Regions

It is preferred to be used together with soybean meal and sometimes as an alternative to it in dairy farms. Canola meal has a good amino acid profile, but its energy and amino acid digestibility are generally 15-20% lower than soybean meal due to its cellulose content which is 10% richer in ME compared to soybean meal. Although canola meal is a good source of calcium, selenium, choline, niacin and zinc compared to soybean meal, it is poor in potassium and copper. It is seen that the percentage of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) in canola meal is better than in soybean meal.

It is necessary to follow the sowing and harvest seasons in order to follow the world and Turkish market and make rational purchases. Table 7 may be useful for this purpose.

Canola can be grown both in winter and summer. However, at the beginning of winter, it must form a strong root and complete the rosette formation. For this, it should be planted in the wet soil at the beginning of October and its output should be provided. If it is sown in dry soil due to drought, forming an exit water channel provides the plant to exit on time and the plant will be sufficiently strong before winter comes.

Table 4. Production, Cultivated Area and Yield of Canola in Turkey

Canola oil is the third most consumed oil in the world and number two in the United States by volume. Canola oil consumption significantly lowers total and LDL cholesterol levels, reduces the risk of heart disease, and improves insulin sensitivity when used as a substitute for saturated fat and increases tocopherol (vitamin E) levels compared to other dietary fat sources.

Table 5. Turkey's Canola Meal Imports – 2019

In summary, in this period of exchange rate fluctuations in Turkey and due to the constant changes in the supply and demand balances of soybean because of the high-scale purchases of large actors on the global scale, canola emerges as an alternative oil and animal nutrition product. It is a source of oil and protein that can be produced in many regions of our country due to the fact that the agricultural production logic is close to wheat production. Suitable climatic conditions for the growth of this plant exist in the cotton fields of the Aegean, Cilician Plain, Mediterranean, Southeastern Anatolia, and sunflower and wheat fields in the Thrace part of the Marmara region. It is also important in terms of the current account deficit that the supports are transferred to plants that are alternative to the plants that are foreign-dependent oil and protein sources. Canola production should be improved despite the possibility of China's recent large-scale soybean purchases in the world and the possibility that Brazil and Argentina may experience shrinkage in soy supply due to climate imbalances.

The fact that canola oil is beneficial for heart health, can be used as a biofuel and its waste is preferred in the livestock sector proves that the production of this plant is significant in many aspects.

[box type="shadow" align="" class="" width=""]References: TÜİK, 2021. Tarım, Fiyat ve Dış Ticaret Veritabanı FAO, 2020. FPMA Database Trademap U.S Canola Association H.NURSOY, E.ŞAHİN, F.TERLEMEZ, 2018, Kanola Bitkisi ve Ürünlerinin Ruminant Beslemede Kullanımı USDA Foreign Agricultural Service[/box]
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